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Abrasive Grains

As a kind of materials, abrasive grains can be distinguished in a variety of ways. They are classified as either natural or synthetic abrasives by manufacturing; either conventional or super abrasives by using history.Learn more

Ceramic Aluminum Oxide Specifications

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Guide for Ceramic Aluminum Oxide Specifications


The raw abrasive materials or ingots are crushed and sized from blocks to grains and powders ranging from macrogrits to microgrits.

Block:Blocky raw abrasive materials or ingots that are crushed by various crushers, which gradually break them up into smaller or manageable sizes.

Grain:A small, hard particle or crystal of abrasive materials that are typically sized or graded by a series of mesh sieves.

Powder:Much finer grits that are separated by hydraulic flotation and sedimentation or by air classification.

Particle Shape

The particle shape of abrasive grains affects their performance in various ways, such as the subsurface damage level and stock removal rate.

Angular:An angular abrasive has sharp but not weak, platy or needlelike edges, which ensure the quickest cleaning rate when removing tightly adhering material or contamination from the substrate.

Blocky:A blocky or rounded abrasive has mostly flat edges. The blocky shape enhances toughness and bulk density of the grain, providing good cleaning rate in most applications, except for those substrates with hard-to-remove contaminants.

Sharp:A sharp abrasive has much sharper edges than the angular one. They are generally required for producing aggressive and fast cutting coated abrasives, grinding wheels, etc.

Cubic:It is generally found in monocrystalline aluminum oxide with a face-centered cubic crystalline structure.

Irregular:A variety of highly irregular shapes are possible through different manufacturing processes for specific applications. Typically, the irregular or crushed shapes are very angular with sharp edges for abrading, cutting or grinding.

Other:Other unusual shapes for abrasive materials.

Grading System

Abrasives are measured by different grading system standards that define a limited range of particle sizes for each grade. So the grit size designations are not consistent across different grading systems.

ANSI:American grading or grit size standards for abrasive grains. ANSI stands for "American National Standards Institute".

FEPA:European grading or grit size standards for abrasive grains. FEPA stands for "Federation of European Producers of Abrasives Products".

JIS:Japanese grading or grit size standards for abrasive grains. JIS stands for "Japanese Industrial Standards".

ISO:International grading or grit size standards for abrasive grains. ISO stands for "International Organization for Standardization".

GB/T:Chinese grading or grit size standards for abrasive grains.

SAE:"Society of Automotive Engineers" (SAE) grading or grit size standards for sand blasting.

Other:Other unlisted, proprietary, or specialized grading or grit size system.


Bonded Abrasives:Bonded abrasives are made of natural or synthetic abrasive grains which are bound together with a vitrified or resinoid or other bond into a mold usually in the shape of a wheel, then pressed and fired at high temperatures. Bonded abrasives, which can be made from different materials, come in thousands of shapes and sizes depending on the type needed and specific application required, such as cutting-off and grinding wheels, snagging wheels, mounted wheels, segments, honing stones, plugs, cones, etc.

Coated Abrasives:Abrasive grains are used to make coated abrasives such as sandpaper and are available in sheets, discs, rolls, belts, pads, flap wheels, and other forms. Coated abrasives are a product of three basic elements: abrasive grains, bond and backing. Abrasive grains can be either natural or synthetic, such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, zirconia alumina, garnet, emery, etc. The abrasive grain is adhered to a cloth, fiber, paper or polyester film backing by a resin or glue or other bond. Abrasive grains should exhibit high capillarity for instant adhesion to bonds.

Polishing/ Lapping:Finer abrasive grains are used to make polishing/lapping compounds, coated abrasive lapping films, superfinishing bonded abrasives, etc. Polishing and lapping are characterized by very fine surface finishes, high dimensional accuracy and flatness, and minimal subsurface damage. They are the precision processes applied for mechanical and electronic or semiconductor components, to produce a smooth, bright and lustrous surface.

Specialty:Other unlisted grinding, blasting, finishing, and abrasives applications.

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